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Foundation Glossary

Attestations

Attestations are issued by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) as confirmation of the fact that greenhouse gas reductions stemming from projects and programmes carried out in Switzerland may be used towards meeting the carbon offset obligation set by the Swiss CO₂ Law.
According to art. 5 of the Swiss CO₂ Ordinance, the FOEN issues attestations when:
  • The project or projects included in a programme do not fall under the list of exclusions in Annex 3 of the Ordinance.
  • The project or projects included in a programme a) would not be profitable without proceeds from the sale of attestations, b) are at least state-of-the-art, and c) involve measures that lead to supplementary emission reductions compared to the baseline scenario.    .
  • The emission reductions a) are verifiable and quantifiable and b) have not been achieved by a company participating in the Swiss Emissions Trading Scheme or by a company having entered a commitment to reduce emissions. 
  • The project’s or the programme's start of implementation does not date back more than three months when submitting the application.

Swiss CO₂ Law

The Swiss CO₂ Law has provided the foundation for Swiss climate policy since 2000. For the period 2008-2012, it stipulated that CO₂ emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil energies had to be reduced by 10% below their 1990 levels.
As per 1 January 2013, the Swiss CO₂ Law underwent a total revision. It now provides the legal basis for Switzerland’s climate policy from 2013 to 2020.
The revised Swiss CO₂ Law stipulates that by 2020 Swiss greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced by at least 20% below their 1990 levels. In absolute terms, this is equivalent to reductions of around 10.5 million tonnes of CO₂ per year.
In order to meet the target of the revised Swiss CO₂ Law, by 2020 various economic sectors are required to reduce their CO₂ emissions by a set percentage compared to 1990: the building sector is prescribed a 40% reduction, the industrial sector a 15% reduction, and the transport sector a 10% reduction.

Swiss Petroleum Association

As the federation of the Swiss petroleum industry, the Swiss Petroleum Association is committed to protecting and promoting the interests of its affiliates. Its currently 28 members are responsible for 95% of Swiss imports of crude oil and petroleum products.
As per 1 January 2013, the Swiss Petroleum Association established the Foundation for Climate Protection and Carbon Offset (KliK) to serve as the sector’s carbon offset grouping. A specialised service platform is thus available to mineral oil companies responsible for releasing fossil motor fuels for consumption: on their behalf, it handles the fulfilment of their carbon offset obligation under the Swiss CO₂ Law. 
www.erdoel.ch

Fossil motor fuels

Fossil motor fuels that fall under the carbon offset obligation of the Swiss CO₂ Law are petrol, diesel oil and aviation fuels used for purely domestic flights. They also include liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, provided these are being used as motor fuels.

Carbon offset groupings

Mineral oil companies responsible for releasing fossil motor fuels for consumption are liable on an individual basis for the fulfilment of their carbon offset obligation. However, the revised Swiss CO₂ Law stipulates that they may effect the required offsets collectively, joining forces by establishing carbon offset groupings.
Establishing carbon offset groupings simplifies the implementation of legal provisions, as the sourcing of carbon offsets is know-how intensive and the total required volume of carbon offsets exceeds the currently available supply of offset projects and programs. Implementation by a specialised carbon offset grouping is therefore more efficient and more effective.

Carbon offset obligation

The Swiss CO₂ Law requires those responsible for releasing fossil motor fuels for consumption to offset the CO₂ emissions resulting from the energetic use of those motor fuels. The carbon offset obligation applies in particular to petrol, diesel and aviation fuels used for purely domestic flights. It also applies to liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas, provided these are being used as motor fuels. Detailed information is available in the Swiss CO₂ Ordinance (Appendix 10, available in German, French and Italian).
Until 2020, CO₂ emissions of around 6.5 million tonnes in total must be offset. This is equivalent to an average offset rate of 5% of emissions resulting from the energetic use of fossil motor fuels over the period 2013 to 2020.

The Swiss CO₂ Ordinance sets the carbon offset rates as follows:

– 2013:

0%

– 2014 / 2015:

2%

 
– 2016 / 2017:

5%

 
– 2018 / 2019:

8%

 
– 2020:

10%









In order to fulfil their carbon offset obligation, mineral oil companies responsible for releasing fossil motor fuels for consumption must support greenhouse gas reduction schemes in Switzerland that fully meet the requirements of the Swiss CO₂ Law.
Mineral oil companies who do not meet their carbon offset obligation pay a penalty of 160 Swiss francs per tonne of CO₂ that has not been offset. In addition, the following year they must hand over to the Swiss Confederation emission reduction certificates covering that same amount of CO₂.

Carbon offset platforms

The means of offsetting CO₂ emissions are manifold. Accordingly, carbon offset projects and carbon offset programmes also vary greatly in their approach. In order to streamline the KliK Foundation’s endeavours and to develop know-how and competences in a targeted manner, the KliK Foundation organises its support along the four platforms Transportation, Businesses, Buildings and Agriculture

Carbon offset programmes

For each of the four platforms Transportation, Businesses, Buildings and Agriculture, the KliK Foundation pools climate protection projects of similar type into programmes. Together with selected partners, it provides these programmes with uniform requirements catalogues and sets of rules. These are submitted for approval to the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), in order to ensure that emission reductions yielded by the programmes may be transferred to the KliK Foundation as attestations.
Detailed information as to the requirements that must be met by carbon offset programmes can be found in the Swiss CO₂ Ordinance (art. 5 and 5a, Appendix 3, available in German, French and Italian) and in the Enforcement Directives for Domestic Emission Reduction Projects and Programmes (available in German, French and Italian).

Carbon offset projects

Across the four platforms Transportation, Businesses, Buildings and Agriculture, the KliK Foundation supports individual projects of greater scale and complexity that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Switzerland. In order to source them, the Foundation works with selected intermediaries. Projects are registered with the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), so that their emission reductions may be transferred to the KliK Foundation as attestations.
Detailed information as to the requirements that must be met by carbon offset projects can be found in the Swiss CO₂ Ordinance (art. 5 and Appendix 3, available in German, French and Italian) and in the Enforcement Directives for Domestic Emission Reduction Projects and Programmes (available in German, French and Italian).

Greenhouse gases

Projects that reduce the following greenhouse gas emissions are recognised (see Swiss CO₂ Ordinance, art. 1)

  • Carbon dioxide (CO₂)
  • Methane (CH₄)
  • Nitrous oxide (N₂O, laughing gas)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆)
  • Nitrogen trifluoride (NF₃)