Key figures of the mitigation activity


Energy Absolute Public Company Ltd

Country and perimeter

Thailand, Bangkok Metropolitan Region

Beneficiaries of the activity

Passengers using privately operated scheduled public bus services within the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

Expected scale until 2030

1.5 million t CO₂e


First ITMOs issued in December 2023

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through electric mobility

This greenhouse gas mitigation activity has introduced electric vehicles for private public transport in Thailand’s capital Bangkok to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a broader scale. Energy Absolute and privately-owned operators of scheduled bus routes in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region have the objective to replace 100% of the existing internal combustion engine bus fleets (privately-owned buses only). In parallel, a charging station service network for these e-buses is also being implemented.

Sustainable, long-term operation of the activity

Electrification of public buses had been a topic in the Thai government’s climate strategy for a few years but was not implemented. Bangkok was therefore not using electric buses on scheduled routes as a means of public transport. This was the result of a lacking infrastructure, manufacturing capacity of e-buses and batteries. This mitigation activity is therefore be seen as a first-of-its kinds undertaking to push Thailand on its EV journey towards a decarbonised economy.

  • The activity replaces the use of conventional (diesel & natural gas) buses with e-buses on a substantial number of privately operated bus lines that provide a regular, scheduled service within the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. This will trigger a gradual phase-out of all ICE buses from the private bus operators and reduce the combustion of fossil fuels.

  • The activity is currently being implemented in accordance with the Paris Agreement Article 6, the Nationally Determined Contributions of Thailand (Thailand’s NDC), and the bilateral climate agreement between Switzerland and Thailand.

  • The experience to be gained from this KliK-supported mitigation activity will provide valuable insights on digitalised MRV systems for greenhouse gas mitigation activities and support infrastructure creation. In doing so, it will support greater NDC mitigation ambition for Thailand.

  • The total costs of ownership (TCO) of electric buses are currently much higher than the ones for internal combustion engine (ICE) buses. Carbon finance by the KliK Foundation from the purchase of min. 500’000 International Transferred Mitigation Outcomes (ITMO) until 2030 shall be used to levelling the total cost of ownership differential between baseline buses and the activity e-buses.

  • As a pilot programme to test the implementation measures, 120 buses were put into operation on the streets of Bangkok in 2021 and 2022 but were not part of the mitigation activity. The implementation of the mitigation activity started in October 2022.

Further benefits

  • competitive bus ticket prices to encourage more passengers to use e-buses (one of the main design criteria)

  • higher quality service (air-conditioned buses, no exposure to outside air pollution)

  • reduced travel times as a result of synchronised scheduling and better route planning (passenger app for real time bus schedules)

  • improved mobility as a result of a denser bus transport system

  • reduced noise and air pollution

  • positive impact on the economy as this activity generates new jobs in Thailand

"The Bangkok E-Bus Programme is advancing Thailand’s climate protection. This contribution towards a decarbonised economy will act as a beacon programme and inspire climate action in other technological sectors."

Chatrapon Sripratum, Vice President, Climate Change Strategy & Sustainability | Energy Absolute Public Company Limited

Why is the activity being undertaken with the support of the KliK Foundation?

In addition to the NDC related policies and plans, a review of EV promotion policies in Thailand concludes that privately owned electric buses are not a priority towards Thailand’s EV promotion plans. There are no existing or planned policies in line with the NDC that either target or promote electrification of privately-operated public transport buses – to the opposite of Government-owned buses Therefore, the Bangkok E-Bus Programme will neither claim reductions that result from measures implemented to achieve the targets set in Thailand’s NDC for the transport sector nor that result from policies put in place for promotion of electric buses. The charging infrastructure is implemented separately and will operate independently from the bus line operators on a commercial basis.

Energy Absolute demonstrated to the Thai and Swiss authorities that additional financing from carbon revenues was needed to make the activity financially viable. Thailand’s confirmation of the additionality of the mitigation activity to its NDC, and its agreement to make corresponding adjustments to its national emissions register, formed the basis for the authorisation of the mitigation activity by both countries on 27 February 2023. The emission reductions achieved will not be claimed by Thailand, thus avoiding double counting.